استفاده از فناوری واقعیت مجازی در زمان شیوع اپیدمی کووید 19 در صنعت گردشگری (مطالعه موردی: موزه ایران باستان)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیارگروه مدیریت بازرگانی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران

2 کارشناس ارشد مدیریت جهانگردی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران

چکیده

تحقیق حاضر با هدف بررسی استفاده از فناوری واقعیت مجازی در زمان شیوع اپیدمی کووید 19 در صنعت گردشگری (مطالعه موردی: موزه ایران باستان) انجام شد. این تحقیق از نظر هدف کاربردی، به لحاظ ماهیت و روش توصیفی-همبستگی و از شاخه‌ی میدانی بود. جامعه آماری این پژوهش کلیه افراد گردشگر سایت مجازی موزه ایران باستان می‌باشد که تعداد آنها جز جوامع نامحدود بود. با استفاده از فرمول تعیین حجم نمونه کوکران، به روش نمونه‌گیری تصادفی ساده، تعداد 384 نفر از جامعه آماری به عنوان نمونه انتخاب شدند که از این تعداد 379 نفر به پرسشنامه‌ها به درستی پاسخ دادند. اطلاعات و داده‌ها به دو روش کتابخانه‌ای و میدانی گردآوری شدند. به منظور نمره‌گذاری پرسشنامه برای هر گزینه طیف پنج تایی لیکرت (کاملاً مخالفم تا کاملاً موافقم) در نظر گرفته شد. جهت بررسی پایایی پرسشنامه‌ها آلفای کرونباخ محاسبه گردید که حاکی از پایایی مطلوب پرسشنامه‌ها بود. برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها در بخش آمار توصیفی از نرم‌افزار SPSS ویراست 24 و در بخش استنباطی از معادلات ساختاری و نرم‌افزار PLS3 استفاده شد. نتایج حاکی از آن است که تجربه ناب بر قصد بازدید گردشگران از طریق متغیرهای پاسخ عاطفی و پاسخ شناختی و دلبستگی به گردشگری واقعیت مجازی در موزه ایران باستان در زمان شیوع اپیدمی کوئید 19، تأثیر مثبت، مستقیم و معناداری دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Use of Virtual Reality Technology during the Outbreak of the Covid 19 Epidemic in the Tourism Industry (A Case study of the Museum of Ancient Iran)

نویسندگان [English]

  • yazdan Shirmohammadi 1
  • Abase Kiani 2
1 Associate Professor, Department of Business Management, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran
2 Master of Tourism Management, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The current research aims to investigate the use of virtual reality during the Covid-19 pandemic in the tourism industry (case study, museum of ancient Iran). In terms of its objective, the current research is an applied one and as its nature and method are regarded it uses a field-based descriptive-correlation methodology. The statistical population of the research includes all of the tourists referred to the virtual site of the museum of ancient Iran. Using the Cochran formula for determining sample size through simple random sampling, 384 individuals were chosen as the statistical community among whom 379 responded to the questionnaires. The data was collected using the library and experimental methods. To score the items, each item was given a score based on a Likert five-point scale (completely disagree- completely agree). To determine the reliability of the questionnaire, the Cronbach alpha was run which indicated optimal reliability. To analyze the data, the SPSS 24 was used for the descriptive statistics and the structural equations of PLS3 were used for the inferential statistics. The results indicated that the authentic experience influences positively, directly, and significantly on tourists' visit willingness through the variables of cognitive response, affective response, and attachment to virtual reality tours in the museum of ancient Iran during the Covid-19 pandemic.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • authentic experience
  • visit willingness
  • cognitive response
  • affective response
  • attachment to virtual reality
  • COVID-19
  1.  

    1. اسلامی هشجین، محمود. (1396). بررسی چگونگی تأثیر واقعیت مجازی بر هرم ارزش ویژه برند (مورد مطالعه: هتل آرمان)، پایان نامه کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکاده اقتصاد، مدیریت و علوم دارایی، دانشگاه سمنان.
    2. جعفری، سکینه، نجارزاده، محمد. گلستانه، رضوان. دیرگندم، نرجس. (1396). رفتار مصرف کننده در خدمات گردشگری الکترونیک، دوره 5، شماره 10، 193-228. com/p1869003
    3. رجبی، زینب. (1391). تأثیر شبکه‌های اجتماعی مجازی بر رفتار مصرف کنندگان با تأکید بر محتوای تولید کاربر درمورد سفر، پایان نامه کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی.
    4. زارعی، مریم،1396، به کارگیری تکنولوژی‌های مجازی در طراحی معماری: واقعیت مجازی Virtual Reality، هفتمین کنفرانس بین‌المللی توسعه پایدار و عمران شهری، اصفهان. صص 1-10. https://www.sid.ir/fa/seminar/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=93112
    5. شیرمحمدی، یزدان، جلالیان، ُسید اسحاق، منصوری، سمانه. (الف، 1399). اثر تصویر و شخصیت برند شهری و تأثیر آن‌ها بر نگرش و قصد انتخاب مقصد گردشگری مطالعه موردی: شهر تهران، نشریه گردشگری شهری (2)7، 50-37.
    6. شیرمحمدی، یزدان،‌هاشمی باغی، زینب، شاهسون، نسترن. (1397). تحلیل اثر ارتباطات یکپارچه بازاریابی و فناوری اطلاعات پیشرفته بر ارزش ویژه برند گردشگری سلامت. گردشگری و توسعه، (1) 7، 19-1.
    7. شیرمحمدی، یزدان؛ برادران، مراد؛ مختار جوزانی مریم (ب، 1399). "اثر گردشگری مجازی بر رفاه ذهنی (مورد مطالعه کاربران اینستاگرام و فیس‌بوک)"، برنامه‌ریزی رفاه و توسعه اجتماعی، دوره 12، شماره 42، بهار 1399، صفحه 157-184. https://journals.atu.ac.ir/article_11925.html
    8. فلاح تفتی، حامد. اسعدی، میرمحمد. ممیزی مهرجردی، حمیرا. (1397). طراحی مدل زیرساخت محور در توسعه گردشگری الکترونیک با استفاده از رویکرد مدلسازی معادلات ساختاری (مورد مطالعه: استان یزد)، مجله برنامه‌ریزی و توسعه گردشگری، سال هفتم، شماره 15، 117-135. https://dx.doi.org/10.22080/jtpd.2018.2002
    9. مشایخ فریدنی، سعید؛ (1371). واقعیت مجازی. مجله صفه، بهار 1371، دوره دوم - شماره 1 (8 صفحه - از 19 تا 26). https://www.noormags.ir/view/fa/articlepage/1404787/
    10. مشکینی، ابوالفضل. علیپور، سمیه. حاجی زاده، مریم. (1397). ارزیابی تأثیر رسانه‌های مجازی در توسعه صنعت گردشگری از دیدگاه کاربران شبکه‌های مجازی، گردشگری شهری، دوره 5، شماره 2، 53-69. https://dx.doi.org/10.22059/jut.2018.237603.351
    11. معمارزاده، غلامرضا. سرافرازی، مهرزاد. فایض، سمانه. (1391). رویکرد فناوری اطلاعات IT در توسعه گردشـگری الکترونیـک، مجموعه مقالات اولین همایش ملی جغرافیا و گردشگری در هزاره سوم، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد نجف‌آباد، 1-21. https://civilica.com/doc/173657/
    12. مینایی، بهروز؛ و رازی زاده، علی. (1392). عناصر شکل دهنده حس حضور و بازتاب آن بر هویت کاربران بازی‌های رایانه‌ای، فصلنامه تحقیقات فرهنگی ایران، شماره 2، 25-48. https://dx.doi.org/10.7508/ijcr.2014.26.002
    13. Adachi, R. Cramer, E.M. & Song, H. (2020). Using virtual reality for tourism marketing: A mediating role of self-presence, The Social Science Journal, DOI: 10.1080/03623319.2020.1727245. https://doi.org/10.1080/03623319.2020.1727245
    14. Andrei O. J. Kwok & Sharon G. M. Koh (2020) COVID-19 and Extended Reality (XR), Current Issues in Tourism, DOI: 10.1080/13683500.2020.1798896
    15. Annie Chen, Norman Peng and Kuang-peng Hung 2015 " Examining tourists’ loyalty toward cultural quarters ", Annals of Tourism Research, 2015, vol. 51, issue C, 59-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ANNALS.2015.01.004
    16. Arnold, M. B. (1960). Emotion and personality (vol.
      1). New York: Columbia University Press. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1961-00300-000
    17. Beck, J. Rainoldi, M. & Egger, R. (2019). Virtual reality in tourism: A state-of-the-art review. Tourism Review, 74(3), 586-612. https://doi.org/10.1108/TR-03-2017-0049
    18. Behavior 10 (4): 584–86. https://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2007.9987
    19. Benckendorff, P. J. Sheldon, P. J. & Fesenmaier, D. R. (2014). Tourism information technology. Wallingford: Cabi. https://www.cabi.org/bookshop/book/9781780641867/
    20. Bitner, M. J. (1992). Servicescapes: The impact of physical surroundings on customers and employees. Journal of Marketing, 56(2), 57-71. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1992-33443-001
    21. Bogicevic, V. Seo, S. Kandampully, J. A. Liu, S. Q. & Rudd, N. A. (2019). Virtual reality presence as a preamble of tourism experience: The role of mental imagery. Tourism Management, 74, 55-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2019.02.009
    22. Bongkosh Ngamsom Rittichainuwat & Suphaporn Rattanaphinanchai (2015), " Applying a mixed method of quantitative and qualitative design in explaining the travel motivation of film tourists in visiting a film-shooting destination ",Tourism Management 46:136–147.
    23. Britannica Online Encyclopedia, search for: virtual museum [2009-04-13] https://www.britannica.com/
    24. Buhalis, D. (2003) Etourism: Information Technologies for Strategic Tourism Management. Financial Times/Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River. http://dx.doi.org/10.13140/2.1.2274.0804
    25. Carlos Flavián & SergioIbáñez-Sánchez & CarlosOrús (2021), " The influence of scent on virtual reality experiences: The role of aroma-content congruence ", Journal of Business Research, Volume 123, February 2021, Pages 289-301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2020.09.036
    26. Carlos Flavián & SergioIbáñez-Sánchez & CarlosOrús (2021), " The influence of scent on virtual reality experiences: The role of aroma-content congruence ", Journal of Business Research, Volume 123, February 2021, Pages 289-301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2020.09.036
    27. Chang, C. H. S. Shu, and B. King. 2014. “Novelty in Theme Park Physical Surroundings: An Application of the StimulusOrganism-Response Paradigm.” Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research 19 (6): 680–99. https://doi.org/10.1080/10941665.2013.779589
    28. Chang, S. E. & Chou, Y. C. (2007), " A Virtual Enterprise Based Information System Architecture for the Tourism Industry", International Journal of Technology Management, 38, 374-391. DOI:10.1504/IJTM.2007.013407
    29. Cohen, E. 1988. “Authenticity and Commoditization in Tourism.” Annals of Tourism Research 15 (3): 371–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/0160 7383(88)90028-X
    30. Cowon, K. & Ketron, S. (2019). A dual model of product involvement for effective virtual reality: The roles of imagination, co-creation, telepresence, and interactivity. Journal of Business Research, 100, 483-492. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2018.10.063
    31. Elin Ivarsson (2009). Definition and prospects of the Virtual museum. 1-63. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Definition-and-prospects-of-the-Virtual-museum-Ivarsson
    32. Faiola A. Smyslova O. (2009) Flow Experience in Second Life: The Impact of Telepresence on Human-Computer Interaction. In: Ozok A.A. Zaphiris P. (eds) Online Communities and Social Computing. OCSC 2009. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 5621. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-02774-1_62
    33. Filep, S. (2007). 'Flow', sightseeing, satisfaction and personal development: exploring relationships via positive psychology. Proceedings of the 17th Annual CAUTHE Conference In: CAUTHE 2007: Tourism - Past Achievements, Future Challenges, 11-14 FEB, Sydney, NSW, Australia. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/269223266_
    34. Flavián, C. Sánchez, S. & Orús, C. (2019). The impact of virtual, augmented and mixed reality technologies on the customer experience. Journal of Business Research, 100, 547-560. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2018.10.050
    35. for Tourism.” Tourism Management 31 (5): 637–651. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2009.07.003
    36. Gilmore, J. H. and B. J. Pine. 2007. Authenticity: What Consumers Really Want. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Press Center. https://www.amazon.com/Authenticity-What-Consumers-Really-Want/dp/1591391458
    37. Griffin, T. & Muldoon, M. (2020). Exploring virtual reality experiences of slum tourism, Tourism Geographies, DOI: 10.1080/14616688.2020.1713881. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2020.1713881
    38. Guttentag, D. A. 2010. “Virtual Reality: Applications and Implications
    39. Hassan, A. E. Ekiz, S. S. Dadwal, and G. Lancaster. “Augmented Reality Adoption by Tourism Product and Service Consumers: Some Empirical Findings.” In Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality, Springer, 2018, 47–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-64027-3_4
    40. Hobson, J.S. Williams, A. (1995). Virtual reality: A new horizon for the tourism industry, Journal of vacation marketing, 1 (2), 124-135 https://doi.org/10.1177/135676679500100202
    41. Holsapple, C. W. & Wu, J. (2007). User acceptance of virtual worlds: the Hedonic framework. ACM SIGMIS Database, 38(4), 86-89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1314234.1314250
    42. Hooker, Robert; Wasko, Molly; and Paradice, David, "Linking Flow, Brand Attitudes and Purchase Intent in Virtual Worlds" (2009). ICIS 2009 Proceedings. 106. https://aisel.aisnet.org/icis2009/106
    43. Horan, P.P. (2007). The world is what you make it-An application of virtual reality to the tourism industry. Masters’ thesis, Dublin City University, Dublin. http://doras.dcu.ie/19501/
    44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman. 2014.06.005
    45. Huang, Y. C. Backman, K. F. Backman, S. J. & Chang, L. L. (2016), " Exploring the Implications of Virtual Reality Technology in Tourism Marketing: An Integrated Research Framework ", International Journal of Tourism Research, 18(2), 116–128. https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.2038
    46. Huang, Y. C. S. J. Backman, K. F. Backman, and D. Moore. 2013. “Exploring User Acceptance of 3D Virtual Worlds in Travel and Tourism Marketing.” Tourism Management 36:490–501. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2012.09.009
    47. Hyun, M. Y. & O’Keefe, R. M. (2012), " Virtual destination image: Testing a telepresence model", Journal of Business Research, 65(1), 29–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2011.07.011
    48. Irene Alice Chicchi Giglioli, Gabriella Pravetton, Lucia Sutil, Elena Parra (2017), " A Novel Integrating Virtual Reality Approach for the Assessment of the Attachment Behavioral System ", Front. Psychol. 28 June 2017 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00959
    49. Zhang (2019). Cognitive Functions of the Brain: Perception, Attention and Memory. https://arxiv.org/abs/1907.02863
    50. Jang, S. and Y. Namkung. 2009. “Perceived Quality, Emotions, and Behavioral Intentions: Application of an Extended MehrabianRussell Model to Restaurants.” Journal of Business Research 62 (4): 451–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2008.01.038
    51. Jani, D. and H. Han. 2015. “Influence of Environmental Stimuli on Hotel Customer Emotional Loyalty Response: Testing the Moderating Effect of the Big Five Personality Factors.” International Journal of Hospitality Management 44 (January): 48–57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2014.10.006
    52. Jean‐Michel Dewailly (1999) Sustainable tourist space: From reality to virtual reality? Tourism Geographies, 1:1, 41-55, DOI: 10.1080/14616689908721293
    53. Jennifer Gutierrez & Rosemary R Seva (2016), " Affective responses in the Purchase of Consumer Eco Products ", DLSU Business & Economics Review 25.2 (2016), pp. 129-146. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281840289_Affective_responses_in_the_Purchase_of_Consumer_Eco_Products
    54. Jones, C. D. Hollenhorst, S. J. Perna, F. & Selin, S. (2000). Validation of the Flow Theory in an On-Site Whitewater Kayaking Setting. [Article]. Journal of Leisure Research, 32(2), 247-261. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222216.2000.11949916
    55. Kaczmarek, Adam Lukasz, 2008, ”Exploring contexts of cultural objects in virtual museums”. 2008 1st International Conference on Information Technology. DOI: 10.1109/INFTECH.2008.4621666
    56. Khalid, H. M. (2006). Embracing diversity in user needs for affective design. Applied Ergonomics, 37(4), 409-418. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2006.04.005
    57. Kim, D. & Ko, Y. J. (2019a). The impact of virtual reality (VR) technology on sport spectators' flow experience and satisfaction. Computers in human behavior, 93, 346-356. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2018.12.040
    58. Kim, M. J. & Hall, C. M. (2019b). A hedonic motivation model in virtual reality tourism: Comparing visitors and non-visitors. International Journal of Information Management, 46, 236-249. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2018.11.016
    59. Kim, M. J. & Hall, C. M. (2019b). A hedonic motivation model in virtual reality tourism: Comparing visitors and non-visitors. International Journal of Information Management, 46, 236-249. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2018.11.016
    60. Kim, M. J. Lee, C. K. & Jung, T. (2020), " Exploring consumer behavior in virtual reality tourism using an extended stimulus-organism-response model", Journal of Travel Research, 59(1), 69–89. DOI: 10.1177/0047287518818915
    61. Kim, W. G. and Y. J. Moon. 2009. “Customers’ Cognitive, Emotional, and Actionable Response to the Servicescape: A Test of the Moderating Effect of the Restaurant Type.” International Journal of Hospitality Management 28 (1): 144– 56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2008.06.010
    62. Lee, M. Lee, S.A. Jeong, M. & Oh, H. (2020). Quality of virtual reality and its impacts on behavioral intention, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 90, 102595. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2020.102595
    63. Lee, O. and J. E. Oh. 2007. “The Impact of Virtual Reality Functions
    64. Li, S. C. Robinson, P. & Oriade, A. (2017). Destination marketing: The use of technology since the millennium. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 6, 95-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2017.04.008
    65. Li, T. & Chen, Y. (2019). Will virtual reality be a double-edged sword? Exploring the moderation effects of the expected enjoyment of a destination on travel intention, Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 12, 15-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2019.02.003
    66. Lin, C. H. & Kuo, B. Z. L. (2016). The behavioral consequences of tourist experience, Tourism Management Perspectives, 18, 84–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2015.12.017
    67. Mehrabian, A. and J. A. Russell. 1974. An Approach to Environmental Psychology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. https://mitpress.mit.edu/books/approach-environmental-psychology
    68. Nakamura J. Csikszentmihalyi M. (2014) The Concept of Flow. In: Flow and the Foundations of Positive Psychology. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-9088-8_16
    69. Neuhofer, B. Buhalis, D. & Ladkin, A. (2012). Conceptualising technology enhanced destination experiences. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 1(2), 36-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2012.08.001
    70. Neuhofer, B. McFee, A. Mayrhofer, T. Baràtovà, A. Rainoldi, M. Egger, R. (2019). The Effects of virtual reality on destination image formation. In Pesonen J. Neidhardt J. (Eds), Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2019 (107-119). Cham: Springer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-05940-8_9
    71. Niklas Ravaja, Timo Saari, Mikko Salminen, Jari Laarni & Kari Kallinen (2006) Phasic Emotional Reactions to Video Game Events: A Psychophysiological Investigation, Media Psychology, 8:4, 343-367, DOI:10.1207/s1532785xmep0804_2
    72. Odum Chigozie Jude (2020), " Tourism and Virtual Reality (VR) in Developing Nations", African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, Volume 9(2). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/339570325_Tourism_and_Virtual_Reality_VR_in_Developing_Nations
    73. of a Hotel Website on Travel Anxiety.” Cyberpsychology and
    74. Oleksy, T. and A. Wnuk. 2017. “Catch Them All and Increase Your Place Attachment! The Role of Location-Based Augmented Reality Games in Changing People–Place Relations.”Computers in Human Behavior 76:3–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.06.008
    75. Pestek, A. and Sarvan, M. (2020), "Virtual reality and modern tourism", Journal of Tourism Futures, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print. https://doi.org/10.1108/JTF-01-2020-0004
    76. Pike, S. & Page, S. J. (2014), " Destination Marketing Organizations and Destination Marketing: A Narrative Analysis of the Literature", Tourism Management, 41, 202-227. DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2013.09.009
    77. Pine, B. J. and J. H. Gilmore. 2015. “Authenticity.” http://www. strategichorizons.com/authenticity.html (accessed February 2, 2018).
    78. Poria, Y. Butler, R. & Airey, D. (2003). The core of heritage tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 30(1), 238-254. doi: 10.1016/s0160-7383(02)00064-6
    79. Poria, Y. Reichel, A. & Biran, A. (2006). Heritage site management: Motivations andExpectations. Annals of Tourism Research, 33(1), 162-178. doi: 10.1016/j.annals.2005.08.001
    80. Pujol, L. (2004), “Archaeology, museums and virtual reality”, Digithum, Vol. 6, pp. 1-9. DOI:10.7238/D.V0I6.542
    81. Rainoldi, R. Driescher, V. Lisnevska, A. Zvereva, D. Stavinska, A. Relota, J. and Egger, R (2017), " Virtual Reality: An Innovative Tool in Destinations’ Marketing", The Gaze Journal of Tourism and Hospitality, 9, 53-68. DOI:10.3126/gaze.v9i0.19721
    82. Rajaguru, R. 2014. “Motion Picture-Induced Visual, Vocal and Celebrity Effects on Tourism Motivation: Stimulus Organism Response Model.” Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research 19 (4): 375–88. https://doi.org/10.1080/10941665.2013.764337
    83. Ratul Sur (2015), " Affective Responses on Consumer Behavior: A New Perspective on IMC", SSRN Electronic Journal 2(9):12-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2638635
    84. Rayward, Boyd, W. Twidale, Michael, B. 1999, ”From docent to cyberdocent: education and guidance in the virtual museum”, Archives and Museum Informatics 13(1):23-53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1009089906902
    85. Ritchie, J. R. B. & Hudson, S. (2009). Understanding and meeting the challenges of consumer/tourist experience research. International Journal of Tourism Research,11(2), 111-126. doi: 10.1002/jtr.721
    86. Ryan Yung & CatherynKhoo-Lattimore & Leigh EllenPotter (2021), " VR the world: Experimenting with emotion and presence for tourism marketing ",Management, Volume 46, March 2021, Pages 160-171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhtm.2020.11.009
    87. Ryan Yung & CatherynKhoo-Lattimore & Leigh EllenPotter (2021), " VR the world: Experimenting with emotion and presence for tourism marketing ",Management, Volume 46, March 2021, Pages 160-171.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhtm.2020.11.009
    88. Saeed, N.Yang, Y. & Sinnappan, S. (2009). Emerging Web Technologies in Higher Education: A Case of Incorporating Blogs, Podcasts and Social Bookmarks in a Web Programming Course based on Students’ Learning Styles and Technology Preferences. Educational Technology & Society, 12 (4), 98–109. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ860437
    89. Sandra Maria Correia Loureiro & JoãoGuerreiro & Arnold Japutra (2021) " How escapism leads to behavioral intention in a virtual reality store with background music? ", Journal of Business Research, Volume 134, September 2021, Pages 288-300. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2021.05.035
    90. Sandra Maria Correia Loureiro & JoãoGuerreiro & Arnold Japutra (2021) " How escapism leads to behavioral intention in a virtual reality store with background music? ", Journal of Business Research, Volume 134, September 2021, Pages 288-300.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2021.05.035
    91. Schweibenz, Werner, 1998, ”The ”virtual museum”: new perspectives for museums to present objects and information using the internet as a knowledge base andcommunication system”. Conference: Knowledge Management und Kommunikationssysteme, Workflow Management, Multimedia, Knowledge Transfer - Proceedings des 6. Internationalen Symposiums für Informationswissenschaft (ISI '98), Prag 3.7. November 1998.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/221315497
    92. Shapiro, L. (2007). The embodied cognition research programme. Philos. Compass 2, 338–346. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2014.02.001
    93. Simon, H. (1982). Affect and cognition: Comments.Paper presented at the Affect and Aognition: The 17th Annual Carnegie Symposium on Cognition held in New Jersey, USA https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=tk2qT34AAAAJ&hl=en
    94. Siv Skard & Eirik SjåholmKnudsen & HallgeirSjåstad & HelgeThorbjørnsen (2021), " How virtual reality influences travel intentions: The role of mental imagery and happiness forecasting ", Tourism Management, Volume 87, December 2021, 104360. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2021.104360
    95. Siv Skard & Eirik SjåholmKnudsen & HallgeirSjåstad & HelgeThorbjørnsen (2021), " How virtual reality influences travel intentions: The role of mental imagery and happiness forecasting ", Tourism Management, Volume 87, December 2021, 104360. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2021.104360
    96. Sohyun An, Youngjoon Choi, Choong-Ki Lee (2021), " Virtual travel experience and destination marketing: Effects of sense and information quality on flow and visit intention", Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, Volume 19, March 2021, 100492, pp. 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm. 2020.100492
    97. Stanley, A. 2017. “Virtual Reality Experiences Becoming Big Part of Tourism Campaigns.” http://www.travelweek.ca/news/virtual-reality-experiences-becoming-big-part-tourism-campaigns/ (accessed January 16, 2018).
    98. Tathagata Ghosh & Abhigyan Sarkar (2016) “To feel a place of heaven”: examining the role of sensory reference cues and capacity for imagination in destination marketing, Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 33:sup1, 25-37, DOI: 10.1080/10548408.2014.997962
    99. Ting Yang & Ivan Ka WaiLai & Zhao BinFan& Qing MinMo (2021) " The impact of a 360° virtual tour on the reduction of psychological stress caused by COVID-19 ", Technology in Society, Volume 64, February 2021, 101514. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techsoc.2020.101514
    100. Ting Yang & Ivan Ka WaiLai & Zhao BinFan& Qing MinMo (2021)
      " The impact of a 360° virtual tour on the reduction of psychological stress caused by COVID-19 ", Technology in Society, Volume 64, February 2021, 101514. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techsoc.2020.101514
    101. Tussyadiah I.P. Wang D. Jia C.. (2017) Virtual Reality and Attitudes Toward Tourism Destinations. In: Schegg R. Stangl B. (eds) Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2017. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51168-9_17
    102. Tussyadiah, I. P. Wang, D. Jung, T. H. & tom Dieck, M. (2018). Virtual reality, presence, and attitude change: Empirical evidence from tourism. Tourism Management, 140, 66-154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2017.12.003
    103. Vanja Bogicevic & Stephanie Q.Liu & Soobin Seo & Jay Kandampully & Nancy A.Rudd (2021), " Virtual reality is so cool! How technology innovativeness shapes consumer responses to service preview modes ", International Journal of Hospitality Management, Volume 93, February 2021, 102806. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2020.102806
    104. Vanja Bogicevic & Stephanie Q.Liu & Soobin Seo & Jay Kandampully & Nancy A.Rudd (2021), " Virtual reality is so cool! How technology innovativeness shapes consumer responses to service preview modes ", International Journal of Hospitality Management, Volume 93, February 2021, 102806. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2020.102806
    105. Vassiliki Kamariotou & Maria Kamariotou & Fotis Kitsios (2021), " Strategic planning for virtual exhibitions and visitors’ experience: A multidisciplinary approach for museums in the digital age ", Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage, Volume 21, June 2021, e00183. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.daach.2021.e00183
    106. Vinzi V.E. Trinchera L. Amato S. (2010) PLS Path Modeling: From Foundations to Recent Developments and Open Issues for Model Assessment and Improvement. In: Esposito Vinzi V. Chin W. Henseler J. Wang H. (eds) Handbook of Partial Least Squares. Springer Handbooks of Computational Statistics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-32827-8_3
    107. Wang, N. (1999). Rethinking authenticity in tourism experience. Annals of Tourism Research, 26(2), 349–370. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-7383(98)00103-0
    108. Wen, H. & Leung, X. Y. (2021). Virtual wine tours and wine tasting: The influence of offline and online embodiment integration on wine purchase decisions. Tourism Management, 83, 104250. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2020.104250
    109. Williams, P. and J. P. Hobson (1995). Virtual reality and tourism: fact or fantasy? Tourism Management, 16 (6), 423-427. https://doi.org/10.1016/0261-5177(95)00050-X
    110. Wohlwill J.F. (1976) Environmental Aesthetics: The Environment as a Source of Affect. In: Altman I. Wohlwill J.F. (eds) Human Behavior and Environment. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-2550-5_2
    111. Wolfendale, J. 2007. “My Avatar, My Self: Virtual Harm and Attachment.” Ethics and Information Technology 9 (2): 111–19. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10676-006-9125-z
    112. Wu, H.C., Ai, C.H. and Cheng, C.C. (2020), "Virtual reality experiences, attachment and experiential outcomes in tourism", Tourism Review, Vol. 75 No. 3, pp. 481-495. https://doi.org/10.1108/TR-06-2019-0205
    113. Zeng, G. Cao, X. Lin, Z. & Xiao, S. (2020). When online reviews meet virtual reality: Effects on consumer hotel booking. Annals of Tourism Research 81: 102860. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2020.102860
    114. Zeph M.C.van Berlo & Eva A.van Reijmersdal & Edith G.Smit & L. Nynkevan der Laanb (2021), " Brands in virtual reality games: Affective processes within computer-mediated consumer experiences ", Journal of Business Research, Volume 122, January 2021, Pages 458-465. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2020.09.